Products > Decarbonization
Modelling Decarbonization & Energy Storage Technologies
For twenty years, Thermoflow's products have been continuously expanding in scope to remain at the forefront of modelling Renewable Energy and Decarbonization Technolgies. As of 2021, most of the advanced and complex schemes that have been proposed have been modelled in Thermoflow's products, principally THERMOFLEX. The examples below provide a glimpse of the wide variety of decarbonization systems that can be modelled with Thermoflow's versatile products.
Click on the links below to view the accompanying program outputs.
Example 1: Model of a conventional coal plant with CCS created by STEAM PRO®
- The Plant, designed automatically in STEAM PRO, is a 350 MW subcritical coal plant, steam conditions HP @ 2750 psia/1040°F (190 bar/560°C), RH @ 650 psia/1040°F (45 bar/560°C), 8 Feedwater Heaters and Condenser Pressure 0.7 psia (48 mbar).
- The Plant incorporates an Electrostatic Precipitator for particles collection, a Wet FGD System for sulfur removal and a post combustion CO2 capture system.
- The amine-based chemical absorption process captures 90% of the CO2 in the flue gas stream. This CO2 is then compressed to 2200 psi (152 bar) for delivery.
- Plant net output is 293 MWe with a net LHV efficiency of 30.4% (for reference a similar plant without CCS would give 335.6 MWe net power at 41.3% LHV net Efficiency and approximately 70% less total cost).
Example 2: Model of an IGCC Plant with Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture created by GT PRO®
- The Plant, designed automatically in GT PRO, is an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC), from bituminous coal to a Syngas feeding a GE 7FB Gas Turbine, and one pressure steam cycle, steam conditions 1247 psia/1115°F (86 bar/601.5°C), Condenser Pressure 0.7 psia (49 mbar).
- Gasification System includes a Type 4 Gasifier (two-stage, dry-fed, enriched air-blown), a convective syngas cooler, an air separation unit, and a gas cleanup system.
- The physical absorption process captures 90% of the CO2 in the syngas stream. This CO2 is then compressed to 2200 psi (152 bar) for delivery.
- Plant output is 321 MWe gross, 263 MWe net, with a net LHV efficiency of 38.0%.
Example 3: Model of a Solar Thermal Tower Plant with Molten Salts Thermal Storage built in THERMOFLEX®
- Approximate model of the Rice Solar Energy Project constructed in California by SolarReserve Rice Solar Energy, LLC. The plant model was built using publicly available information.
Example 4: Model of a Liquid Air Energy Storage (LAES) built in THERMOFLEX®
Example 5: Model of a Wind Farm feeding an Electrolyzer for Hydrogen production built in THERMOFLEX® and 24 hours operation in Excel
- Model of a Wind Farm comprised of 6 wind turbines for a total 20 MW and a comparably sized Electrolyzer.
- Wind Farm annual yield calculated from a given wind resource data.
- Electrolyzer plant at full load consumes 18.1 MW of electric power and produces 335 kg/h of Hydrogen, for a 61.7% LHV Efficiency.
- The 24-hour cycle of operation can be performed either in Excel using Thermoflow's ELINK feature (Example 5a - Sample File S5-24a) or, alternatively, by using Thermoflow's built-in Macro feature (Example 5b - Sample File S5-24b)
Example 6: Model of a Waste to Energy 20MW plant built in THERMOFLEX®
- This model is included in the THERMOFLEX Samples directory as Sample File (S1-15a), and was introduced in Thermoflow Version 22 (2012).
- The model includes a grate furnace boiler burning municipal solid waste (MSW) with several design measures to prevent corrosion and fouling, as well as a water cooling system for the grate, which is used to preheat the primary air.
- A dry FGD system with baghouse is installed.
- The plant processes 500 tonne/day of waste and makes 21.4 MW gross at a net efficiency of 27.3%.
- A system with CO2 capture can also be modelled in THERMOFLEX.
Example 7: Model of a Pressurized Oxyfuel Supercritical Coal Plant built in THERMOFLEX®
- This model is included in the THERMOFLEX Samples directory as Sample File (S5-21), and was introduced in Thermoflow Version 20 (2010).
- Model of a Circulating Fluidized Boiler (CFB) burning coal with oxygen at 30 bar supplied from an Air Separation Unit (ASU) and flue gas recirculation.
- Flue gas passes through an Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP) for particulate removal, then is cooled to condense water and finally compressed to deliver 97% CO2 at 2200 psi (152 bar).
- Single reheat supercritical Rankine cycle with 9 feedwater heaters, steam conditions: HP 4050 psia/1080°F (279 bar/582°C), reheat 1000 psia/1110°F (69 bar/589°C) for a 503 MW gross and 373 MW net power and 33.7% net efficiency on LHV.
Example 8: Model of an intercooled recuperated oxyfuel CO2 gas turbine cycle (Allam Cycle) built in THERMOFLEX®
- This model is included in the THERMOFLEX Samples directory as Sample File (S5-25A), and was introduced in Thermoflow Version 29 (2020).
- Model of an Allam Cycle, intercooled recuperated gas turbine cycle burning natural gas with CO2 and Oxygen. A 300 MW plant, 10 Pressure Ratio and 1150°C (2100°F) TIT, with the GT expander modelled with seven cooled turbine stages.
Example 9: Model of a simple Steam Methane Reformer (SMR) built in THERMOFLEX®
- This model is included in the THERMOFLEX Samples directory as Sample File (S6-18), and was introduced in Thermoflow Version 29 (2020).
- Model of a small modular Steam Methane Reformer producing 5 kg/h (11 lb/h) of Hydrogen from natural gas and steam (25-75% by volume) at 67.6% LHV Hydrogen Production Efficiency.
Example 10: Model of a Gas Turbine in parallel with a PV Field of similar capacity built in THERMOFLEX®
- This model is included in the THERMOFLEX Samples directory as Sample File (S5-22), and was introduced in Thermoflow Version 26 (2016).
- The model calculates the power out of the PV Field at a given irradiance level and uses a script to calculate the backup GT power necessary to meet a demand.
- The example includes a Classic Macro to run 24 hour cases representing one day.
Example 11: Model of a CCGT plant with post combustion CCS created by GT PRO®
- The plant, designed automatically in GT PRO, is a 2x1 Gas Turbine Combined Cycle, 3 Pressure Reheat and a Water Cooled Condenser with Wet Cooling Tower. It incorporates an amine-based chemical absorption process which captures 85% of the CO2 in the flue gas stream and compresses it to 2200 psi (152 bar) for delivery.
- At 22°C ambient the plant output is 936 MW net at 47.6% net LHV Efficiency, versus 1066 MW and 54.2% of a similar plant without CCS. The cost increase is about 90%.
Example 12: Model of an Integrated Solar Combined Cycle, ISCC built in THERMOFLEX®
- This model is included in the THERMOFLEX Samples directory as Sample File (S5-08), and was introduced in Thermoflow Version 18 (2008).
- Model of a GT combined cycle coupled with a parabolic trough solar field and solar boiler making steam at 380°C.
- At design mode the program allows the user to evaluate the effect on cost, performance and plant plot of different solar system sizes.
- At off design the program calculates the steam flow / ST power contribution from the solar system at different irradiation levels. In the example, at maximum irradiance the solar filed adds 27 MW of power (6.5%) and almost 4 points of efficiency to the combined cycle.
Example 13: Model of a hybrid Solar-Biomass Plant built in THERMOFLEX®
- This model is included in the THERMOFLEX Samples directory as Sample File (S5-10), and was introduced in Thermoflow Version 19 (2009).
- Model of a 11 MW steam plant with a Linear Fresnel Collector (LFC) Solar Field and a backup Biomass Boiler.
- The LFC solar field consists of 3 sections, economizer, evaporator and superheater and makes steam at 65 bar / 460°C. At low or zero irradiance levels the Biomass boiler, modelled through a simple package boiler component, supplements the solar field to meet the demand power.
- An ELINK Model calculates 24 hours plant performance in different seasons.
Example 14: Model of a power (PV) to heat (DH) + storage system built in THERMOFLEX®